Welcome to the Glossary

Please enter a word in the input field above or alternatively search by letter.


Indicates the size of spanners width across flats.


See Acidity / Alkalinity

Acidity / Alkalinity

While both acidity and alkalinity are related to pH, they should not be confused with pH, nor should the terms be used interchangeably.  Acidity is a measure of a solution’s capacity to react with a strong base (usually sodium hydroxide, NaOH) to a predetermined pH value. This measurement is based on the total acidic constituent of a solution (strong and weak acids, hydolyzing salts, etc.) Alkalinity is the measure of a solution’s capacity to react with a strong acid (usually sulfuric acid H2SO4) to a predetermined pH. The alkalinity of a solution is usually made up of carbonate, bicarbonate, and hydroxides. 

Read more


See Acidity / Alkalinity


An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body. Such reactions are called allergies.

Read more


In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base. Amphoteric surfactant refers to a surfactant simultaneously carrying the anionic and cationic hydrophilic group with its structure containing simultaneously hermaphroditic ions which are able to form cation or anion according to the ambient conditions (e.g. pH).

Anionic surfactants

Anionic surfactants contain anionic functional groups at their head, such as sulfonate, phosphate, sulfate and carboxylates. Alkyl sulfates include ammonium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl and the related alkyl-ether sulfates sodium laureth sulfate, also known as sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES), and sodium myreth sulfate. These are the most common surfactants and comprise the alkyl carboxylates (soaps), such as sodium stearate. The stearates comprise >50% of the global usage of surfactants.

Anti-Vac Valve

Is a one way valve that prevents a vessel becoming under a partial vacuum.

Aseptic equipment

Hygienically designed equipment that is sterilisable and is impermeable to microorganisms to maintain its aseptic status.

Aseptic process

A process using equipment sterilised before use, and which, in running conditions, is protected against recontamination by micro-organisms. (see also Ultra-clean process)


The definition of an audit is the process of evaluation or analysis of something to determine its accuracy or safety, or is the document that declares the result of such an analysis or evaluation.


An instrument that is pressurized by steam, without the inclusion of air, in which articles and/or liquids may be sterilised.